Debating IR

Probing the philosophical underpinnings of the international system and anything else of interest.

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Thursday, February 02, 2006

Neoclassical realism

Neoclassical realism, according to Sterling-Folker, argues that relative power distribution and perceptions of this relative power profoundly impact, if not define, foreign policy. She applies neoclassical realism to the situation in Kosovo during the Clinton Administration, and also (briefly) to the Iraq war.

Neoclassical realism appears to me to be the most realistic (no pun intended) theory of foreign policy that we have studied so far. (I am in the process of taking World Politics now, and thus haven't heard of, well, any of these theories until this semester.) It strikes me as particularly realistic because it incorporates the human reaction to perceived power, rather than dealing with absolute power only. What a policymaker thinks about a situation has more influence on policy than what is actually going on, since his opinion will delineate his policies regardless of whether or not his opinion is valid. By arguing that policy is ultimately dependent on elite perceptions, neoclassical realism allows for the fact that these perceptions may be wrong.

For example, as Sterling-Folker points out, "fear of potential relative power loss and challenges to US prestige appeared to drive the administration's strategy" in Iraq (51); whether the actual impact on perceived US power would have been great enough to merit our investment in this war is debatable, but policymakers made the value judgment and involvement was necessary to prevent the US from being perceived as weak.

Although I believe that more factors are involved with such a tremendous decision as going to war, neoclassical realism appears to provide a solid base for examining foreign policy decisions. Power perceptions are vital to security -- after all, countries are less likely to attack a nation that appears more powerful than themselves.

70 Comments:

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Anonymous Joad said...

joad@hotmail.co.uk

Neoclassical only serves to further add to the fog of IR theory. Yes, it is correct to take into consideration the perceptions of the statesmen, but this is taken into account by both Neo and Classical, although, on a minor note. Neoclassical realism could even be called Constructivist as it is taking into consideration Wendt's notion of social theory and the idea that domestic level opinong impacts upon foreign policy. I personally am a Offensive realist, and see Neoclassical as an attempt to sell another book, it may be a rather bland response to the theory, but I am not wholly convinced as to the academic weight when applied to historical situations.

4:23 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

While Wendt concedes that there are undoubtedly domestic determinants of policy, he agrees with Waltz that states are the primary unit of analysis in the international system. Wendt then goes on to argue that shared ideas, or "intersubjective understandings," between states about international politics are what constitute the international system - rather than the distribution of capabilities.

Neoclassical realism is not constructivist, as it still places emphasis on material rather than ideational factors.

Offensive realism is dead. Even John Mearsheimer isn't an offensive realist any more.

Read Randy Schweller's book "Unanswered Threats" (2006) for a persuasive historical discussion of neoclassical realism.

I hope this alleviates some confusion for you and that you continue to grow and enjoy the debates within the field!

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Anonymous nasty jack said...

could someone tell me please if neoclassical realists believe in rationality?

10:48 AM  
Anonymous Rodney said...

on the issue of rationality and neoclassical realism -neoclassical realists do believe in rational decision makers which, incidently, sets them apart from constructivists. -see review in political science association 2005.

Christensen and Snyder in their joint essay argue that European states rationally reacted to the percieved situation of offensive advantage in military technology by bounding themselves in military alliances. Whether they were correct or not (they weren't) is irrelevant as the main point here is that the authors argue that they were reaction rationally to what was considered a fact.

Constructivists on the other hand view choice not as rationalists do -as an adequate response of actors to objective conditions- but as creative and novel actions that makes the conditions of action what they are.

Ted Hopf in Social Construction of International Politics for example looks at how state understandings of itself in Moscow affected how the state and its decision makers, understands other states in world affairs.

This is therefore not a rational reading of an objective reality. The independent and dependent variables both consist of decision makers understandings. This constructivist approach therefore is quite different from neoclassical realism.

One thing I would like clarifying tho is whether Wendt's constructivism requires rational actors, as some have accused him of replacing Waltz's material structures with ideational structures and then assuming that these are simple determinants of state behaviour?

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